Oxigenoterapia Hiperbarica para ayudar como para apoyo Osteomielitis refractaria

¿CON QUE PUEDE AYUDAR LA CÁMARA HIPERBÁRICA EN OSTEOMIELITIS REFRACTARIA?

Bone, leg bone, femur-2937723. Jpg

La terapia de oxígeno hiperbárico (TOHB) puede ofrecer varios beneficios en el tratamiento de la osteomielitis refractaria:

  1. Combate las infecciones: La TOHB crea un entorno rico en oxígeno, lo que fortalece el sistema inmunológico y ayuda a combatir las infecciones bacterianas de manera más efectiva.

  2. Promoción de la cicatrización: El oxígeno adicional mejora la regeneración de tejido sano y acelera la cicatrización de heridas, lo que es fundamental en la osteomielitis para reemplazar el tejido infectado.

  3. Reducción de inflamación: La TOHB puede ayudar a reducir la inflamación y el dolor asociados con la osteomielitis.

  4. Mejora la penetración de antibióticos: En combinación con antibióticos, la TOHB puede aumentar la penetración de los medicamentos en los tejidos afectados.

  5. Prevención de amputaciones: En casos graves, la TOHB puede ayudar a preservar extremidades y evitar amputaciones.

  6. Mejora la calidad de vida: Al acelerar la recuperación y reducir los síntomas, la TOHB mejora la calidad de vida de los pacientes con osteomielitis refractaria.

Es importante destacar que la TOHB generalmente se utiliza como parte de un enfoque de tratamiento integral junto con otros métodos médicos y quirúrgicos. El número de sesiones y la duración del tratamiento varían según la gravedad del caso y las necesidades individuales del paciente. Siempre se debe consultar a un profesional de la salud para determinar la mejor estrategia de tratamiento.

LA TERAPIA HIPERBÁRICA PARA AYUDAR CON EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA OSTEOMIELITIS

La osteomielitis refractaria es una infección ósea que no responde adecuadamente a los tratamientos convencionales, como antibióticos y cirugía. En estos casos, la terapia de oxígeno hiperbárico (TOHB) puede ser una opción efectiva. La TOHB implica respirar oxígeno puro en un entorno de alta presión, lo que aumenta significativamente la concentración de oxígeno en la sangre y los tejidos. Este ambiente rico en oxígeno ayuda a combatir las infecciones al fortalecer el sistema inmunológico y promover la regeneración de tejido sano. 

Para la osteomielitis refractaria, la TOHB puede ser utilizada como un enfoque complementario para mejorar la respuesta a los tratamientos convencionales o como una terapia principal en casos graves.

Legs, shoes, walking-2635038. Jpg

¿CUÁNTAS SESIONES SE NECESITAN?

La cantidad de sesiones necesarias de terapia de oxígeno hiperbárico (TOHB) para tratar la osteomielitis refractaria puede variar según varios factores, como la gravedad de la infección, la respuesta del paciente al tratamiento y las recomendaciones del equipo médico. En general, un curso típico de TOHB para osteomielitis podría incluir alrededor de 20 a 40 sesiones, con sesiones que generalmente duran de 90 a 120 minutos cada una. Estas sesiones se realizan a lo largo de varias semanas.

CÓMO SIRVE LA TERAPIA EN CÁMARA HIPERBÁRICA PARA LA OSTEOMIELITIS REFRACTARIA

Mas detallado con estudios de soporte

Liceaga, D. E. (2014). GUÍAS CLÍNICAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO DEL SERVICIO DE CÁMARA HIPERBÁRICA. Ciudad de Mexico: Hospital General de Mexico.

Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. (2021). Indications for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Retrieved from https://www.uhms.org/resources/hbo-indications.html

Chapter 12: Refractory Osteomyelitis
Brett B. Hart MD
REFERENCES
1. Strauss MB. Refractory osteomyelitis. J Hyperbaric Med. 1987;2:147-159.
2. Perrins DJD, et al. OHP in the management of chronic osteomyelitis. In third international conference on
hyperbaric medicine. Washington D.C.: National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council;1966.
3. Slack WK, Thomas DA, Perrins D. Hyperbaric oxygenation chronic osteomyelitis. Lancet. 1965;14:1093-4.
4. Hamblen DL. Hyperbaric oxygenation. Its effect on experimental staphylococcal osteomyelitis in rats. J Bone Joint
Surg Am. 1968;50(6):1129-41.
5. Sippel HW, Nyberg CD, Alvis HJ. Hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunct to the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the
mandible: report of case. J Oral Surg. 1969;27(9):739-41.
6. Niinikoski J, Hunt TK. Oxygen tensions in healing bone. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1972;134(5):746-50.
7. Mader JT, et al. A mechanism for the amelioration by hyperbaric oxygen of experimental staphylococcal
osteomyelitis in rabbits. J Infect Dis. 1980;142(6):915-22.
8. Park MK, Myers RA, Marzella L. Oxygen tensions and infections: modulation of microbial growth, activity of
antimicrobial agents, and immunologic responses. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14(3):720-40.
9. Hohn DC. Oxygen and leukocyte microbial killing, in hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Davis JC, Hunt TK eds.
Bethesda, Maryland: Undersea Medical Society; 1977. Pp.101-10.
10. Kindwall EP. Uses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the 1990s. Cleve Clin J Med. 1992;59(5):517-28.
11. Esterhai Jr, JL, et al. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen exposure on oxygen tension within the medullary canal in the
rabbit tibial osteomyelitis model. J Orthop Res.1986;4(3):330-6.
12. Verklin Jr, RM, Mandell GL. Alteration of effectiveness of antibiotics by anaerobiosis. J Lab Clin Med.
1977;89(1):65-71.
13. Mader JT, Adams KR, Couch LA. Potentiation of tobramycin by hyperbaric oxygen in experimental Pseudomonas
aeruginosa osteomyelitis. In 27th interscience conference on antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. New
York;1997.
14. Mader JT, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen as adjunctive therapy for osteomyelitis. Infect Dis Clin North
Am.1990;4(3):433-40.
15. Mendel V, et al. Therapy with hyperbaric oxygen and cefazolin for experimental osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus
aureus in rats. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1999;26(3):169-74.
16. Mader J, Shirtliff M, Calhoun JH. The use of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of osteomyelitis. In hyperbaric
medicine practice. Kindwall EP, Whelan HT, eds. Flagstaff, AZ: Best Publishing Company, 1999. Pp.603-616.
17. Sugihara A, et al. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the bout of treatment for soft tissue infections. J Infect.
2004;48(4):330-3.
18. Mader JT, Ortiz M, Calhoun JH. Update on the diagnosis and management of osteomyelitis. Clin Podiatr Med
Surg. 1996;13(4):701-24.
19. Coulson DB, Ferguson Jr, AB, Diehl Jr, RC. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on the healing femur of the rat. Surg
Forum. 1966;17:449-50.
20. Niinikoski J, Penttinen R, Kulonen K. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on fracture healing in the rat: a biochemical
study. Calcif Tissue Res. 1970:p.Suppl:115-6.
21. Penttinen R. Biochemical studies on fracture healing in the rat, with special reference to the oxygen supply. Acta
Chir Scand Suppl. 1972;432:1-32.
22. Yablon IG, Cruess RL. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen on fracture healing in rats. J Trauma. 1968;8(2):186-202.
23. Steed DL. Enhancement of osteogenesis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. A clinical study. J Dent Res.1982;61A: 288.
24. Ueng SW, et al. Bone healing of tibial lengthening is enhanced by hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a study of bone
mineral density and torsional strength on rabbits. J Trauma.1998;44(4):676-81.
25. Sawai T, et al. Histologic study of the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on autogenous free bone grafts. J Oral
Maxillofac Surg.1996;54(8):975-81.
26. Jones Jr, JP. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen on osteonecrosis. Anaheim, CA: Orthopaedic Research Society;1991.
27. Strauss MB. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on bone resorption in rabbits. In seventh annual conference on the clinical
applications of hyperbaric oxygen. Anaheim, CA; 1982.
28. Strauss MB, Bryant B. Hyperbaric oxygen. Orthopedics. 2002;25(3):303-10.
29. Skyhar MJ, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen reduces edema and necrosis of skeletal muscle in compartment syndromes
associated with hemorrhagic hypotension. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1986;68(8):1218-24.
30. Strauss MB, et al. Reduction of skeletal muscle necrosis using intermittent hyperbaric oxygen in a model
compartment syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(5):656-62.
Copyright © 2019 Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc.
31. Zamboni WA, et al. Morphologic analysis of the microcirculation during reperfusion of ischemic skeletal muscle and
the effect of hyperbaric oxygen. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993;91(6):1110-23.
32. Nylander G, et al. Reduction of postischemic edema with hyperbaric oxygen. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1985;76(4):596-603.
33. Hunt TK, Halliday B, Knighton DR.. Impairment of microbicidal function in wounds: correction with oxygenation,
in soft and hard tissue repair. Hunt TK, Heppenstall RB, Pines E, eds. Praeger: New York; 1984;455-68.
34. Hohn DC, et al. Effect of O2 tension on microbicidal function of leukocytes in wounds and in vitro. Surg Forum.
1976;27(62):18-20.
35. Hunt TK, Pai MP. The effect of varying ambient oxygen tensions on wound metabolism and collagen synthesis. Surg
Gynecol Obstet.1972;135(4):561-7.
36. Connolly WB, et al. Influence of distant trauma on local wound infection. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1969;128:713-8.
37. Wald ER. Risk factors for osteomyelitis. Am J Med. 1985;78(6B):206-12.
38. Le Saux N, et al. Shorter courses of parenteral antibiotic therapy do not appear to influence response rates for
children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis. 2002;2:16.
39. Lew DP, Waldvogel FA. Osteomyelitis. Lancet. 2004;364(9431):369-79.
40. Davis JC, Heckman JD. Refractory osteomyelitis, in problem wounds: the role of oxygen. Davis JC, Hunt TK, eds.
New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc.; 1988. Pp.125-142.
41. Attinger C, Cooper P. Soft tissue reconstruction for calcaneal fractures or osteomyelitis. Orthop Clin North Am.
2001;32(1):135-70.
42. Lazzarini L, Lipsky BA, Mader JT. Antibiotic treatment of osteomyelitis: what have we learned from 30 years of
clinical trials? Int J Infect Dis. 2005;9(3):127-38.
43. Zalavras CG, Singh A, Patzakis MJ. Novel technique for medullary canal debridement in tibia and femur
osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;461:31-4.
44. Thonse R, Conway J. Antibiotic cement-coated interlocking nail for the treatment of infected nonunions and
segmental bone defects. J Orthop Trauma. 2007;21(4):258-68.
45. Kocaoglu M, et al. Reconstruction of segmental bone defects due to chronic osteomyelitis with use of an external
fixator and an intramedullary nail. J Bone Joint Surg Am.2006;88(10):2137-45.
46. Chen F, et al. [The treatment of deep wound infection after posterior thoracic and lumbar instrumentation].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2005;43(20):1325-7.
47. Varzos PN, et al. Chronic osteomyelitis associated with monofilament wire fixation. J Foot Surg.1983;22(3):212-7.
48. Chang WC, et al. Successful treatment of extended epidural abscess and long segment osteomyelitis: a case report
and review of the literature. Surg Neurol. 2008 Feb;69(2):117-20. Note original 2007 citation was for an Epub.
49. Barbarossa V, et al. Treatment of osteomyelitis and infected non-union of the femur by a modified Ilizarov
technique: follow-up study. Croat Med J.2001;42(6):634-41.
50. Pappou IP, et al. Postoperative infections in interbody fusion for degenerative spinal disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res.
2006;444:120-8.
51. Talmi YP, et al. Postsurgical prevertebral abscess of the cervical spine. Laryngoscope. 2000;110(7):1137-41.
52. Przybylski GJ, Sharan AD. Single-stage autogenous bone grafting and internal fixation in the surgical management
of pyogenic discitis and vertebral osteomyelitis. J Neurosurg. 2001;94(1 Suppl):1-7.
53. May Jr. JW, Gallico III, GG, Lukash FN. Microvascular transfer of free tissue for closure of bone wounds of the
distal lower extremity. N Engl J Med. 1982;306(5):253-7.
54. Steinlechner CW, Mkandawire NC. Nonvascularised fibular transfer in the management of defects of long bones
after sequestrectomy in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87(9):1259-63.
55. Simard S, Marchant M, Mencio G. The Ilizarov procedure: limb lengthening and its implications. Phys Ther.
1992;72(1):25-34.
56. Daver NG, et al. Oral step-down therapy is comparable to intravenous therapy for Staphylococcus aureus
osteomyelitis. J Infect. 2007;54(6):539-44.
57. Aneziokoro CO, et al. The effectiveness and safety of oral linezolid for the primary and secondary treatment of
osteomyelitis. J Chemother. 2005;17(6):643-50.
58. Cole WG, Dalziel RE, Leitl S. Treatment of acute osteomyelitis in childhood. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1982;64(2):218-23.
59. Gentry LO. Overview of osteomyelitis. Orthop Rev.1987;16(4):255-8.
60. Ketterl R, et al. Use of ofloxacin in open fractures and in the treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis. J Antimicrob
Chemother. 1988;22 (Supp.C):159-66.
61. Lamp KC, et al. Clinical experience with daptomycin for the treatment of patients with osteomyelitis. Am J Med.
2007;120(10 Sup p.1):S13-20.
62. Miller,DJ, Mejicano GC, Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Candida species: case report and literature review. Clin
Infect Dis. 2001;33(4):523-30.
Copyright © 2019 Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc.
63. Petersen S, et al. Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in childhood. A 10-year review and followup. Acta Orthop Scand.1980;51(3):451-7.
64. Powers T, Bingham DH. Clinical and economic effect of ciprofloxacin as an alternative to injectable antimicrobial
therapy. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47(8):1781-4.
65. Rayner CR et al. Linezolid in the treatment of osteomyelitis: results of compassionate use experience. Infection.
2004;32(1):8-14.
66. Schurman DJ, Dillingham M. Clinical evaluation of cefoxitin in treatment of infections in 47 orthopedic patients.
Rev Infect Dis.1979;1(1):206-9.
67. Stefanovski N, Van Voris LP. Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: report of a series of 23 patients. Contemp Ortho.
1995;31(3):159-64.
68. Stratov I, Korman TM, Johnson PD. Management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis: report of failure of liposomal
amphotericin B and response to voriconazole in an immunocompetent host and literature review. Eur J Clin
Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22(5):277-83.
69. Bingham EL, Hart GB. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of refractory osteomyelitis. Postgrad Med. 1977;61(6):70-6.
70. Depenbusch FL, hompson RE, Hart GB. Use of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of refractory osteomyelitis: a
preliminary report. J Trauma. 1972;12(9):807-12.
71. Davis JC, et al. Chronic non-hematogenous osteomyelitis treated with adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen. J Bone Joint
Surg Am. 1986;68(8):1210-7.
72. Morrey BF, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen and chronic osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res.1979(144):121-7.
73. Sheps SB. Hyperbaric oxygen for osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis. Vancouver: University of British
Columbia;1992. Pp.1-21.
74. Senneville E, et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of prolonged linezolid treatment for chronic osteomyelitis: a
retrospective study. Clin Ther. 2006;28(8):1155-63.
75. Priest DH, Peacock, Jr JE. Hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in the adult: clinical
features and therapeutic outcomes. South Med J. 2005;98(9):854-62.
76. Gomez J, et al. [Orthopedic implant infection: prognostic factors and influence of long-term antibiotic treatment on
evolution. Prospective study, 1992-1999]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2003;21(5):232-6.
77. Eckardt JJ, Wirganowicz PZ, Mar T. An aggressive surgical approach to the management of chronic osteomyelitis.
Clin Orthop Relat Res.1994(298):229-39.
78. Hall BB, Fitzgerald, Jr.,RH, Rosenblatt JE. Anaerobic osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65(1):30-5.
79. Marx RE. Chronic osteomyelitis of the jaws. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am.1991;3:367-81.
80. Mercuri LG. Acute osteomyelitis of the jaws. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am.1991;3:355-65.
81. Mader JT, et al. Antimicrobial treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res.1999(360):47-65.
82. Waldvogel FA, Medoff G, Swartz MN. Osteomyelitis: a review of clinical features, therapeutic considerations and
unusual aspects (second of three parts). N Engl J Med. 1970;282(5):260-6.
83. Gomis M, et al. Oral ofloxacin versus parenteral imipenem-cilastatin in the treatment of osteomyelitis. Rev Esp
Quimioter.1999;12(3):244-9.
84. Mader JT, Cantrell JS, Calhoun J. Oral ciprofloxacin compared with standard parenteral antibiotic therapy for
chronic osteomyelitis in adults. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990;72(1):104-10.
85. Gentry LO, Rodriguez-Gomez G. Ofloxacin versus parenteral therapy for chronic osteomyelitis. Antimicrob Agents
Chemother. 1991;35(3):538-41.
86. Jauregui LE, Hageage G, Martin M. Oral enoxacin versus conventional intravenous antimicrobial therapy for
chronic osteomyelitis. J Chemother.1989;1(4 Suppl):735-6.
87. Swiontkowski MF, et al. A comparison of short- and long-term intravenous antibiotic therapy in the postoperative
management of adult osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1999;81(6):1046-50.
88. Spencer,CH. Bone and joint infections in children. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1998;10(5):494-7.
89. Tetzlaff TR, McCracken Jr. GH, Nelson JD. Oral antibiotic therapy for skeletal infections of children. II. Therapy of
osteomyelitis and suppurative arthritis. J Pediatr. 1978;92(3):485-90.
90. Wall EJ. Childhood osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 1998;10(1):73-6.
91. Higuchi T, et al. Preliminary report of the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for specific complications
of lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant.2006;25(11):1302-9.
92. Larsson A,et al. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of postoperative neurosurgical infections. Neurosurgery. 2002;50(2):
287-95; discussion 295-6.
93. Lucente FE, Parisier SC, Som PM. Complications of the treatment of malignant external otitis. Laryngoscope.1983;
93(3):279-81.
Copyright © 2019 Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc.
94. Waldvogel FA, Medoff G, Swartz MN. Osteomyelitis: a review of clinical features, therapeutic considerations and
unusual aspects. N Engl J Med.1970;282(4):198-206.
95. Waldvogel FA, Medoff G, Swartz MN. Osteomyelitis: a review of clinical features, therapeutic considerations and
unusual aspects. Osteomyelitis associated with vascular insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 1970;282(6):316-22.
96. Ger R. Muscle transposition for treatment and prevention of chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis of the tibia. J
Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977;59(6):784-91.
97. Gordon L, Chiu EJ. Treatment of infected nonunions and segmental defects of the tibia with staged microvascular
muscle transplantation and bone-grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988;70(3):377-86.
98. Kelly PJ. Infected nonunion of the femur and tibia. Orthop Clin North Am. 1984;15(3):481-90.
99. May Jr. JW, et al. Clinical classification of posttraumatic tibial osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg Am.
1989;71(9):1422-8.
100. Weiland AJ, Moore JR, Daniel RK. The efficacy of free tissue transfer in the treatment of osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint
Surg Am. 1984;66(2):181-93.
101. Mader JT, Shirtliff M, Calhoun JH. Staging and staging application in osteomyelitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25(6):
1303-9.
102. Cierny III G, Mader JT, Penninck JJ. A clinical staging system for adult osteomyelitis. Clin Orthop Relat Res.
2003(414):7-24.
103. Fanning WJ, Vasko JS, Kilman JW. Delayed sternal closure after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1987;44(2):
169-72.
104. Clarkson JH, et al. Our experience using the vertical rectus abdominis muscle flap for reconstruction in 12 patients
with dehiscence of a median sternotomy wound and mediastinitis. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg.
2003;37(5):266-71.
105. Farinas MC, et al. Suppurative mediastinitis after openheart surgery: a case-control study covering a seven-year
period in Santander, Spain. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20(2):272-9.
106. Athanassiadi K, et al. Omental transposition: the final solution for major sternal wound infection. Asian Cardiovasc
Thorac Ann. 2007;15(3):200-3.
107. Rezai AR, et al. Contemporary management of spinal osteomyelitis. Neurosurgery. 1999;44(5):1018-25; discussion
1025-6.
108. Osei-Yeboah C, et al. Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. Ghana Med J. 2007;41(2):88-90.
109. Blomstedt GC. Craniotomy infections. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1992;3(2):375-85.
110. Malone DG, et al. Osteomyelitis of the skull base. Neurosurgery. 1992;30(3):426-31.
111. Stieg PE, Mulliken JB. Neurosurgical complications in craniofacial surgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1991;2(3):
703-8.
112. Gallagher RM, Gross CW, Phillips CD. Suppurative intracranial complications of sinusitis. Laryngoscope.
1998;108(11 Pt 1):1635-42.
113. Lucente FE et al. Malignant external otitis: a dangerous misnomer? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.1982;90(2):266-9.
114. Tisch M, Maier H. [Malignant external otitis]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2006;85(10):763-9; quiz 770-3.
115. Bhandary, S, Karki P, Sinha BK. Malignant otitis externa: a review. Pac Health Dialog. 2002;9(1):64-7.
116. Slattery III, WH. Brackmann DE. Skull base osteomyelitis. Malignant external otitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am.
1996;29(5):795-806.
117. Triplett RG, et al. Experimental mandibular osteomyelitis: therapeutic trials with hyperbaric oxygen. J Oral
Maxillofac Surg.1982;40(10):640-6.
118. Mendel V, Simanowski HJ, Scholz H. Synergy of HBO2 and a local antibiotic carrier for experimental osteomyelitis
due to Staphylococcus aureus in rats. Undersea Hyperb Med.2004;31(4):407-16.
119. Mader JT, et al. Therapy with hyperbaric oxygen for experimental osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in
rabbits. J Infect Dis. 1978;138(3):312-8.
120. Triplett RG, Branham GB. Treatment of experimental mandibular osteomyelitis with hyperbaric oxygen and
antibiotics. Int J Oral Surg. 1981;10(Sup p.1):178-82.
121. Esterhai Jr. JL, et al. Adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of chronic refractory osteomyelitis. J
Trauma. 1987;27(7):763-8.
122. Esterhai Jr. JL, et al. Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis complicating nonunion and segmental defects of the tibia
with open cancellous bone graft, posterolateral bone graft, and soft-tissue transfer. J Trauma. 1990;30(1):49-54.
123. MacGregor RR, Graziani AL, Esterhai JL. Oral ciprofloxacin for osteomyelitis. Orthopedics. 1990;13(1):55-60.
124. Barili F, et al. Role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of postoperative organ/space sternal surgical site
infections. World J Surg. 2007;31(8):1702-6.
Copyright © 2019 Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc.
125. Welsh FML, Matos LU, deTreville TP. Medical hyperbaric oxygen therapy: 22 cases. Aviat Space Environ Med.
1980;51(6):611-4.
126. Eltorai I, Hart GB, Strauss MB. Osteomyelitis in the spinal cord injured: a review and a preliminary report on the
use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Paraplegia. 1984;22(1):17-24.
127. Maynor ML, et al. Chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia: treatment with hyperbaric oxygen and autogenous
microsurgical muscle transplantation. J South Orthop Assoc. 1998;7(1):43-57.
128. Chen CY, et al. Chronic refractory tibia osteomyelitis treated with adjuvent hyperbaric oxygen: a preliminary report.
Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1998;21(2):165-71.
129. Chen CE, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of chronic refractory osteomyelitis: a preliminary
report. Chang Gung Med J. 2003;26(2):114-21.
130. Chen CE, et al. Results of chronic osteomyelitis of the femur treated with hyperbaric oxygen: a preliminary report.
Chang Gung Med J. 2004;27(2):91-7.
131. Calhoun KH, et al. Osteomyelitis of the mandible. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988;114(10):1157-62.
132. Jamil MU, Eckardt A, Franko W. [Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Clinical use in treatment of osteomyelitis,
osteoradionecrosis and reconstructive surgery of the irradiated mandible]. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 2000;4(5):320-3.
133. Handschel J, et al. Evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in treatment of patients with osteomyelitis of the
mandible. Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2007.
134. Lentrodt S, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen for adjuvant therapy for chronically recurrent mandibular osteomyelitis in
childhood and adolescence. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65(2):186-91.
135. Mainous EG. Hyperbaric oxygen in maxillofacial osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis, and osteogenesis enhancement.
In hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Davis JC, Hunt TK, eds. Bethesda, Maryland: Undersea Medical Society; 1977.
Pp.191-203.
136. Van Merkesteyn JP, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the jaws. Int J Oral Surg. 1984;
13(5):386-95.
137. Aitasalo K, et al. A modified protocol for early treatment of osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible.
Head Neck.1998;20(5):411-7.
138. Carragee EJ, et al. The clinical use of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.
Spine.1997;22(18):2089-93.
139. Kovalenko DG, Savchenko AV, Milovanova EM. [Osteoplasty in surgical treatment of hematogenic osteomyelitis of
the spine]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 1978;120(3):89-93.
140. Ibarra S, et al. [Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone (Pott’s puffy tumor). A report of 5 patients]. Enferm Infecc
Microbiol Clin.1999;17(10):489-92.
141. Balm AJ, Tiwari RM, de Rijcke TB. Osteomyelitis in the head and neck. J Laryngol Otol. 1985;99(10):1059- 65.
142. Boeckx WD, et al. The role of free flaps in the treatment of persistent scalp osteomyelitis. Neurosurgery. 2006;59 (1
Sup p.1).ONS64-7; discussion ONS64-7.
143. Marshall AH, Jones NS. Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone secondary to frontal sinusitis. J Laryngol Otol.
2000;114(12):944-6.
144. Levy R, et al. Oral ofloxacin as treatment of malignant external otitis: a study of 17 cases. Laryngoscope.1990;
100(5)548-51.
145. Lang R, et al. Successful treatment of malignant external otitis with oral ciprofloxacin: report of experience with 23
patients. J Infect Dis. 1990;161(3):537-40.
146. Gehanno P. Ciprofloxacin in the treatment of malignant external otitis. Chemotherapy. 1994;(40 Sup p.1):35-40.
147. Martel, J. et al. [Malignant or necrotizing otitis externa: experience in 22 cases]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac,
2000. 117(5): p.291.
148. Narozny W, et al. Value of hyperbaric oxygen in bacterial and fungal malignant external otitis treatment. Eur Arch
Otorhinolaryngol. 2006; 263(7):680-4.
149. Davis JC, et al. Adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen in malignant external otitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.
1992;118(1):89-93.
150. Strecker T, et al. Sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery: risk factor analysis and interdisciplinary
treatment. Heart Surg Forum. 2007;10(5):E366-71.
151. Newman LG, et al. Unsuspected osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers. Diagnosis and monitoring by leukocyte
scanning with indium in 111 oxyquinoline. Jama. 1991;266(9):1246-51.
152. Grayson ML, et al. Probing to bone in infected pedal ulcers. A clinical sign of underlying osteomyelitis in diabetic
patients. Jama. 1995;273(9):721-3.
153. Roeckl-Wiedmann I, Bennett M, Kranke P. Systematic review of hyperbaric oxygen in the management of chronic
wounds. Br J Surg. 2005;92(1):24-32.
Copyright © 2019 Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc.
154. Zamboni WA, et al. Evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen for diabetic wounds: a prospective study. Undersea Hyperb
Med. 1997;24(3):175-9.
155. Abidia A, et al. The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in ischaemic diabetic lower extremity ulcers: a double-blind
randomised-controlled trial. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2003;25(6):513-8.
156. Kessler L, et al. Hyperbaric oxygenation accelerates the healing rate of nonischemic chronic diabetic foot ulcers: a
prospective randomized study. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(8):2378-82.
157. Warriner III RA, Hopf HW. Enhancement of healing in selected problem wounds, in hyperbaric oxygen 2003:
indications and results: the hyperbaric oxygen therapy committee report. Feldmeier JJ, Editor. Kensington: Undersea
and Hyperbaric Medical Society; 2003. Pp.41-55.
158. Strauss MB. Economic considerations in chronic refractory osteomyelitis. In fifth annual conference on clinical
applications of hyperbaric oxygen. Long Beach,CA; 1980.
159. Riddick M. Sternal wound infections, dehiscence, and sternal osteomyelitis: the role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy,
in hyperbaric medicine practice. Kindwall EP, Whelan HT, eds. 1999, Flagstaff, AZ: Best Publishing Company;
1999. Pp.617-39.
160. Shandley S, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a mouse model of implant-associated osteomyelitis. J Orthop Res.
2012;30(2):203-8.
161. Chen CY, et al. Adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of hemodialysis patients with chronic
osteomyelitis. Ren Fail. 2008;30(2):233-7.
162. Roje Z, et al. Influence of adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy on short-term complications during surgical
reconstruction of upper and lower extremity war injuries: retrospective cohort study. Croat Med J. 2008;49(2):224-32.
163. Ahmed R, Severson MA, Traynelis VC. Role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of bacterial spinal
osteomyelitis. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;10(1):16-20.
164. Sandner A, et al. [Value of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of advanced skull base osteomyelitis].
Laryngorhinootologie. 2009;88(10):641-6.
165. Yu WK, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunctive treatment for sternal infection and osteomyelitis after
sternotomy and cardiothoracic surgery. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;6:141.
166. Hart BB. Refractory osteomyelitis, in Hyperbaric oxygen therapy indications. Thirteenth edition. Weaver, LK, ed.
North Palm Beach, FL: Best Publishing Company; 2014. Pp.179-207.
167. Onen MR, et al. Efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in iatrogenic spinal infections. Spine. 2015;40(22):1743-8.
168. Coulson A, Peek A, Haugen D. Femoral vein cannulation in the treatment of osteomyelitis. Wounds.
2016;28(6):194-9.
169. Skeik N, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment outcome for different indications from a single center. Ann Vasc Surg.
2015;29(2):206-214.
170. Yeheskeli E, et al. Temporomandibular joint involvement as a positive clinical prognostic factor in necrotizing
external otitis. J Laryngol Otol. 2016;130(5)435-9.
171. Kawashima M, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in orthopedic conditions. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2004
Spring;31(1):155-62.