Oxigenoterapia Hiperbarica para ayudar con Insuficiencia Circulatoria Periférica y retardo de la cicatrizacion

¿CON QUE PUEDE AYUDAR LA CÁMARA HIPERBÁRICA EN LA INSUFICIENCIA PERIFÉRICA ARTERIAL Y VENOSA?

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La Terapia de Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica (TOHB), a presiones mayores de 2.0 ATA, puede ofrecer varios beneficios en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia venosa, que es una afección en la que el flujo sanguíneo se reduce repentinamente en una extremidad debido a un trauma. Estos beneficios incluyen:

  1. Aumento del suministro de oxígeno: La TOHB implica respirar oxígeno puro a presiones elevadas, lo que aumenta significativamente la cantidad de oxígeno transportado en la sangre. Esto mejora la disponibilidad de oxígeno para el metabolismo celular, lo que es esencial para la cicatrización de heridas.

  2. Reducción de la hipoxia: La TOHB corrige la falta de oxígeno en las heridas, lo que es esencial para iniciar el proceso de reparación y curación.

  3. Apoyo a la función del sistema inmunológico: La TOHB mejora la función de los glóbulos blancos, lo que es importante para combatir infecciones.

  4. Aumento de la angiogénesis: La TOHB estimula la formación de nuevos vasos sanguíneos, lo que mejora el suministro de sangre a la herida y promueve la curación.

  5. Mejora en la resistencia a infecciones: La TOHB puede ayudar a prevenir infecciones en heridas al mejorar la capacidad del cuerpo para matar bacterias.

  6. Promoción del crecimiento de tejido: La TOHB estimula la liberación de factores de crecimiento que apoyan la formación de nuevo tejido en la herida.

  7. Reversión de la hipoxia tisular: La TOHB restablece la disponibilidad de oxígeno en el tejido circundante de la herida, lo que es crucial para la reparación de la herida.

  8. Mejora en la función de los leucocitos: Los glóbulos blancos mejoran su función bactericida en un entorno con niveles adecuados de oxígeno.

  9. Disminución de la respuesta inflamatoria: La TOHB puede reducir la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, lo que es beneficioso en el proceso de curación.

LA TERAPIA HIPERBÁRICA EN LESIONES DE TEJIDOS BLANDOS Y RETRASOS DE LA CICATRIZACIÓN POR INSUFICIENCIA ARTERIAL

La isquemia periférica traumática aguda y la insuficiencia circulatoria periférica son dos condiciones médicas que involucran una disminución del flujo sanguíneo en las extremidades, ya sea debido a un trauma agudo o una reducción crónica del suministro de sangre. La Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica (OHB) se ha utilizado en el tratamiento de ambas afecciones con resultados prometedores.

En la isquemia periférica traumática aguda, que puede surgir tras lesiones, fracturas o cirugía vascular, la OHB juega un papel importante en la restauración del flujo sanguíneo y la oxigenación de los tejidos afectados. Al someter al paciente a una presión más alta de oxígeno en una cámara hiperbárica, se aumenta la capacidad de la sangre para transportar oxígeno, lo que estimula la curación, reduce el riesgo de infección y minimiza el daño tisular.

En la insuficiencia circulatoria periférica, donde el flujo sanguíneo se reduce crónicamente debido a enfermedades como la arteriosclerosis, la OHB se utiliza para aumentar la oxigenación de los tejidos y reducir los síntomas asociados, como el dolor y la dificultad para caminar. Al proporcionar oxígeno adicional, se promueve la formación de nuevos vasos sanguíneos y se mejora la circulación. Algunos de los casos en los que puede ayudar son:

  1. Heridas problemáticas
  2. Úlcera por insuficiencia arterial
  3. Úlceras del pie diabético
  4. Oclusión de la arteria central de la retina (golpe del ojo)

Otras en las que pudiera ayudar:

  1. Úlceras por estasis venosa
  2. Úlceras por presión/úlceras por decúbito
  3. Heridas relacionadas con la calcifilaxis
  4. Heridas relacionadas con la esclerodermia
  5. Vasculopatía livedoide / atrofia blanca
  6. Granulomatosis de Wegener/granulomatosis con heridas relacionadas con poliangeítis

Si bien la OHB puede ser beneficiosa en estas condiciones, su aplicación se realiza bajo supervisión de tu médico tratante y como parte de un enfoque terapéutico integral. Es importante buscar el consejo de un profesional de la salud para determinar la idoneidad de la OHB en cada caso para proporcionar un tratamiento adecuado y seguro.

 

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CÓMO SIRVE LA TERAPIA EN CÁMARA HIPERBÁRICA PARA LA INSUFICIENCIA CIRCULATORIA PERIFÉRICA (VENOSA Y ARTERIAL) PARA TRATAR HERIDAS

Mas detallado con estudios de soporte

Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. (2021). Indications for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Retrieved from https://www.uhms.org/resources/hbo-indications.html

Liceaga, D. E. (2014). GUÍAS CLÍNICAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO DEL SERVICIO DE CÁMARA HIPERBÁRICA. Ciudad de Mexico: Hospital General de Mexico.

Chapter 2B: Arterial Insufficiencies: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Selected Problem Wounds
Enoch T. Huang MD, MPH&TM, FUHM, FACEP, FACCWS,
Marvin Heyboer III MD, FUHM, FACEP, FACCWS, Davut J. Savaser MD, MPH, FAAEM, FACEP
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